In my first article on Potential Energy I explained a little bit about how electrical potential energy transforms energy in a way very similar to JEDEM. Since that time I have learned a good deal more about Potential Energy and its relationship with all of the forces of nature.

In this article I want to go into much more detail regarding why electricity exists, and how it’s transformed into electric potential energy. After reading this article you should be able to better understand how electricity exists.

Just as mentioned in my first article, the conversion of electrical potential energy from a point A to a point B is equal to the sum of the voltages induced by an applied force. As discussed in the Energy and Work example, potential electrical potential energy of an object of mass moving under the effect of gravitational attraction is exactly equal to the sum of the number of times the force is applied to it.

To put it differently, it takes energy to make, and energy to de-create it. It is the sum of all of these that creates the quantity of electric potential energy that is measured in joules per Coulomb.

Let us take a look at one of the more common examples of this sort of conversion. The photoelectric effect says that if you strike a surface with your finger, you leave behind a negative charge, generally in the form of a feeble photodiodes in your own skin.

If these photodiodes are coupled to a thin film of indium tin oxide on the top layer of their epidermis, they give off photons. These photons are absorbed by the skin, and after the passage of some time, the user feels a powerful, negative charge on the skin from the positive charge transferred by means of the electrical potential energy.

This is the key idea of how it works: if you can understand this concept, you might realize that the electrical potential energy is a clear amount (measured in joules) that can be converted into kinetic energy by means of an electron accelerator.

You don’t need to know anything more than the basics about the electron and the nucleus to understand how this works. I will give a brief sketch of how it works shortly but to keep it simple, let’s just assume that the electron is moving in a particular orbit about the atom. That describes the kinetic energy.

The electric potential energy is therefore the sum of all the net charges which are flowing through an atom. There are essentially three types of collisions that may occur: collisions with an electron and with an atomic nucleus, collisions with the nucleus and with an external circuit component, and collisions with external circuit components together with the electron in their orbital.

The electron can only move in one orbit at a time, which is why the circuit element needs to be in an opposite orbit from the atom. To provide a short explanation, consider the atom as having four shells: up, down, close to the nucleus, and far away. The electrons can only make one complete orbit at a time, or they will swarm, causing the atom to get “jumpy” and irregular.

The electric potential energy is therefore the sum of all of the net kinetic energy, the atom can create between itself and the external circuit element.

The electrical potential energy function for a quenched circuit is: P = HfV / (q V – Hf). For some purposes, it may help to consider that Hf is the frequency that is used in digital transistors and so, P is the electric potential energy which they obtain when a current is run through them.

Now, considering that the possible difference is the amount of all of the net charges flowing through the circuit, and also remembering that P is the whole voltage obtained when all the clocks are running at the same potential.

This gives us a simple formula for calculating the electric potential energy: V = q. Because the potential difference between two terminals on a circuit is provided by their individual voltages, the equation is really only a matter of multiplying both sides by the voltages between them and dividing by the total possible difference: V = q.

Since there are a few factors we need to take under consideration, we will examine the results a bit later. It is important to remember though that the constant factor, which accounts for the unevenness of the potential gap, is the square of the number of times the currents change their values.

To sum it up: if an electrical potential energy circuit runs through two conductors, the sum of the electric potential energy is quantified. If the gap in their electrical energy is negative, then the circuit is considered to be “cold” – in the sense that the sum of their electrical potential energy is zero.

Conversely, if their potential electric energy is positive, then the circuit is considered “warm”. The term “cool” and “hot” is used here because the amount of potential energy in a surplus that could potentially be produced by the conductors is obviously greater than the amount of energy produced by them.

In the event of a “cold” circuit, there is a small quantity of potential excess energy which is radiated away in the two conductors, and this surplus radiated energy leaves the circuit exceptionally hot.

Here’s another example: if you measure the electrical energy each electron in a cloud, then there are no clouds. The cloud is made up of very few conductors connected to one another. When you send energy to the cloud, this energy is measured and its amount is added up.

The complete amount is called the cloud’s “energetic radiation”. The term “energy unit” is used here because it’s been proven that the amount of energy per electron is stored in a system of complex materials such as neurons in the brain.